Drivers and pressures
The collection rates of different widespread waste (WSW) streams are related to the marketing of certain products (packaging, motor vehicles, batteries, oils and electronic and electric products). Another driving force for the increasing amounts of WSW is the market price of scrap materials (metals, ferrous materials, etc.).
Figure 7. Number of collected ELVs and scrap metal price.
NOTE: Prize should be corrected to price below.
The main driving forces can be identified as demographic, economic and migration processes. Bulgaria has shown negative population growth since the 1990s (http://www.nsi.bg/Population_e/Population_e.htm) which is a prerequisite for the ageing population in the country. On the other hand, an increase in GDP usually corresponds to the growth in municipal waste generation. The intra-country migration process (from small villages and towns to the big cities) has a noticeable effect on the generation of municipal waste. The big cities are served by separate collection systems which decrease the amount of collected municipal waste.
The other pressure factor at national level is tourism but during recent years this factor has not had such a strong influence because of the significant decrease in the flow of tourists (a result of the world financial crisis) (http://www.nsi.bg/SocialActivities_e/Tourism_e.htm).
The inventory of GHG emissions in 2005 shows that the total GHG emissions in Bulgaria are – 69 994.88 Gg CO2-eq., while the net emissions (considering the absorption from LUCF) are 62 607.6 Gg (http://eea.government.bg/bul/Output/UNFCCC/index.html).
The top producers of GHG in Bulgaria are in the energy sector (74.5 %), followed by the waste management (9.30 %) and industrial processes (8.82 %) sectors. Landfilling accounts for the main share of emissions generated by the waste management sector and, in 2005, the emissions from municipal waste were top of the list for sources of СН4 and were in fifth place for all sources of GHG emissions across the country (National inventory report of GHG for Bulgaria, 2007).